|Soil Name||Distribution||Characteristics [Reason]|
|Tundra Soils (1)||Polar Margins in Tundra region. [Soil Texture ® Sandy clay, along with humus & Peat].||Little Profile differentiation. [Soil moisture remain Frozen for a greater part of year.] |
Chemical and organic changes are slow [ Low Temperature condition]
Soil reaction is acidic [Slow Decomposition of organic matter ]
Soil Structure – Angular blocky.
Fertility Status – Low [Inherent Climatic and Parental Limitation.]
|Pod Soils (2)||North America & Eurasia. [ Humid mid- latitude haring forest vegetation & temperate region having moderate to low rainfall in coniferous vegetation].||Well developed A&B horizon of soil [ Elutriation and Illuviation ].|
Pronounced Leaching. [ Snowmelt due to water release, high acidity].
Soil Reaction is acidic [ Slow Decomposition of organic matter].
Fertility Status – Low.
Productivity – Low [May be by addition of lime & fertilizers. ]
|Grey brown Podzolic Soil (3)||Mid Latitude ® Korea , Manchuria, Japan, W. Europe, NE United States. [Deciduous western margin of the continents].||Less leached [ Compared to pod sols]|
Less Acidity [ Compared to Pod sols]
More humus content [Compared to pod sols].
Dark brown B horizon [ Contains Minerals & organic colloids.]
Fertility – Average.
Productivity – High [ Lime & Fertilizer responsive.]
Bacterial action – relatively rapid, faster organic matter decomposition.
|Prairie Earths (4)||‘Parkland’ areas of temp. grassland. ‘Moister Margin of Chernozem Soils’ [Mid latitude , Temperate humid climate.]||There is no clear differentiation about soli profile.|
Calcium layer absent. [ High rainfall & leaching (Moderate)] Leaching is moderate.
Structure – Granular & Nutty Neutral, Fertility & Productivity is very high.
High humus content.
|Red & Yellow Forest Soil (5)||S.E USA, S.E china, S. Japan, S.E Brazil [ High temp & abundant rainfall.]||Distinct Horizon Development, A1 Reddish/ Yellow, A2 – Light colored, B Horizon [ Dark color ]|
Pronounced Leaching [ High rainfall]
Little humus [warmer region enhances pronounced bacterial activity]
Productivity – Fertilizer responsive crop yield high.
Pathogenic Process – podzolization and laterization.
|Red Tropic Soil (6)||Asia, Africa, Australia and central and South America. [ Hot wet equatorial regions ]||Deeply weathered but lock in distinct horizon|
Less humus content [Moist condition enhances bacterial activity ]
Productive if used scientifically
Permanent residual of Fe, A1, Mn & in the top layer.
|Laterite Soil (7)||Brazil, W. Indies , Tropical Africa, south India. [ Alternate wet and dry & hot humid climatic conditions ]||Red tropical Soil type|
Leached of alkalis and silica
Accumulation of Sesquioxides in top layer
Soil reaction is acidic
Poor base saturation
Fertility – Poor
|Chernozem ( Black Earth Soil). (8)||Ukraine, Canadian prairies, Dakota to Texas in the South USA, Murray darling Basin of Australia. [ Temp. grassland, low& light precipitation ]||A horizon – Thick & black [ Accumulation of humus derived from decomposed roots & grass]|
B horizon – Brownish / yellowish, c-horizon – Ca & Salt accumulation in summer.
Texture- clayey .
Soil reaction is basic.
Most Fertile Soils.
|Chestnut – Brown soils (9)||Arid margin of chernozem belt.||Less humus content compare to chernozem.|
Formation of CaCo3 in B Horizon.
Lighter color than chernozem.
Prismatic and cloddy structure.
Less fertile than Black- earth soil.
Productive if hood, if proper irrigation is available.
|Sierozem (10)||Mid- latitude continental deserts of Nevada and Gobi||This soils having poor Horizonization.|
Low humus content & near absence of humus Excessive CaCo3 content.
Productive if irrigated.
|Red Desert Soils (11)||Great Desert of Australia and Africa.||Poor horizon development.|
Min. humus content.
Coarse Soil Texture.
Productive if abundant irrigation is available & Salt removed.
|(B) Intra zonal Solis|
|Hydromorphic Soils (12)||Areas of impaired drainage within zonal soil belt.||Deep layer of Peat and undecomposed organic matter became of diminished bacterial action.|
Gleization in sub – surface became of reduction of Fe.
Three types – (1) Boy & peat soil, (2) Meadow, (3) Plano sol.
|Halomorphic Soils (13)||Occurs in interior basins in arid and semi and regions.||High soil content and degraded alkali. Light color.|
|Catamorphic sols (14)||Rendzina and terra rossa soil & has high calcium content.||Three types in Russia – Solonetz, Solonchak & Sloth.|
|(C) Azonal Soils|
|Litho sols (15)||Found on Mountain Slopes||Stony & thin Coarse TextureLittle organic MatterNo agriculture value.|
|Regosols (16)||Found on glaciers||Rich fertile & friable Structure.|
|Alluvial Soils (17)||Ex-situ Soil||Poor horizon developmentYoung soil, it is level beddedHigh fertile because mineral matter is mixed thoroughly mixed.|