The yellow virus is caused due to Flavivirus that is spread in humans by infected bites of Aedes and haemogogus mosquitoes. The mosquitoes mainly live around houses or jungle. If a person affected by yellow fever moves to another country that is free of yellow fever, it can transmit the virus to another person. But the disease mainly occurs at the place where mosquitoes present.
- After the infection, the period of incubation for Yellow fever is 3-6 days.
- Many people do not have symptoms.
- Some people will have typical symptoms like fever, muscle ache with significant backache, headache, loss of weight, and vomiting.
- In some cases, the symptoms will go within 3-4 days.
- Some patients will go to a more severe stage within 24 hours of infection.
- It will affect our organs, mainly kidneys and liver.
- At this stage, people are shifting to Jaundice, known as yellow ad fever (eyes and skin will become yellow).
- They can experience dark urine with stomach pain and vomiting.
- Also, they undergo bleeding from the mouth, nose, and stomach.
- Those who are in this severe stage will die within 7-10 days.
- The early stage of this infection is challenging to diagnose.
- The severe stage of yellow fever is confused with other hemorrhagic fevers, viral hepatitis, and poisoning.
- The early stage of this virus can be detected by PCR testing in blood and urine.
- The later stage is diagnosed with antibodies needed.
- Yellow fever is a flavivirus genus, which is an arbovirus; it can transmit through mosquitoes.
- Mainly by Aedes and Haemogogus species.
- The mosquitoes live in a different habitat like domestic, jungle, and semi-domestic.
- The transmission cycle has three phases:
- Sylvatic yellow fever is mainly in the rainforest, where monkeys are chief reservoirs of yellow fever that are bitten by mosquitoes. They can easily transmit the virus to other monkeys. So the people traveling to the forest can also be affected and grow yellow fever.
- Common yellow fever: The transmission is mainly happening due to semi-domestic mosquitoes that can breed both in the jungle and in homes. So it can infect both monkeys and humans. So the transmission takes place in a large amount. Results in the outbreak can happen in many villages at the same time. This is the most common type of epidemic in Africa.
- Urban yellow fever: A large amount of spreading happens in a highly-populated area with a large number of mosquitoes also with less immunity and lack of awareness. In this situation, the affected mosquitoes will spread the virus from person to person.
- Timely and fast treatment will improve the survival rate.
- Currently, there is no antiviral drug for yellow fever; instead, the procedure given to dehydration, lung, and kidney will enhance the result.
Prevention and Control
- This yellow fever can be prevented by vaccination and mosquito control measures.
- The yellow fever vaccination is low of cost and very useful.
- A single dose can provide you lifelong immunity.
- Prevention from a mosquito can also reduce the spread where the immunization is not immediately available.
- It should kill the adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides in the area of high mosquitoes.
- It should give awareness on cleaning the house and drainages and cover the water containers where the mosquito can breed quickly.
Yellow Fever Vaccine
According to CDC, the 17D immunization has been viewed as one of the most secure and best live virus vaccines at Created so far. The 17D immunization, which depends on a live, weakened viral strain, is the main economically accessible yellow fever vaccine. It is given as a solitary subcutaneous (or intramuscular) infusion.