What is Viral Encephalitis | Symptoms | Diagonsis| Treatments|

Awake Call !! Alert !! Don't Delay !! Immediate Medical Emergency needed for Younger Children and Older adults .

Inflammation of the brain caused by a virus is known asviral Encephalitis. The primary cause of viral Encephalitis is enteroviruses groups. Even though some bacterias, fungi, and parasites also can stimulate Encephalitis. Once the virus entered into the blood, it can multiply and spread to all parts of the body. It reaches the brain through blood or nerves. After damaging the blood-brain barrier, these viruses get into the brain cells and start rupturing the infected brain cells. The immune system sends the cells to the brain to fight against the virus. It leads to swelling of brain. The most severe effects of this virus end at permanent brain damage. Both the infection and an immune response formed the symptoms of viral Encephalitis.

Viral Encephalitis Diagram
Image of Swelling in the brain

Encephalitis causing viruses:

  1. Enteroviruses (coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and echovirus)
  2. Rubella
  3. Measles
  4. Adenovirus
  5. Cytomegalovirus
  6. Herpes simplex virus
  7. Varicella-zoster virus
  8. Epstein-Barr virus
  9. Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus and Kunjin virus
  10. Japanese encephalitis virus

Viral Encephalitis Symptoms:

  1. Headache
  2. Vomiting
  3. Body temperature remains high
  4. General malaise
  5. Stiffness in neck and back
  6. Confusion
  7. Memory loss
  8. Seizures & paralysis
  9. Coma

Viral Encephalitis Complications:

Adults above 55 years and children below one year are at high-risk levels and have an increased chance of developing complications of viral Encephalitis. The complications are

  1. Low blood pressure
  2. Low oxygen levels in the blood 
  3. Bleeding inside the brain
  4. Permanent brain damage
  5. Death

Viral Encephalitis Mode of Transmission:

  1. Airborne virus transmission occurs when infected person cough or sneeze
  2. Through biting of infected insects or animals
  3. Consumption of contaminated food or drinks
  4. Through touching an infected person

Viral Encephalitis Diagnosis:

  • Viral Encephalitis can be diagnosed through 
  • A Physical examination, blood test, CT scan, EEG, MRI
  • A Laboratory examination of cerebrospinal fluid

Treatment:

Antiviral medications provided could fight only with a limited number of viruses. Hence medications are provided to reduce the harsh of the symptoms. The severity of viral Encephalitis depends on the type of the virus, and it can be reduced by giving proper treatment. The severe phase of illness lasts for at least one or two weeks. Many cases are recovered fully without any loss, but some cases have resulted in varying degrees of brain damage. Hence these cases can require supportive care and long term therapies.