- Internal borrowings like from market, treasury bills against RBI.
- External borrowing a FI’s foreign loan and NRI deposits.
- It can be justified when there is no source for government.
- 2010-11 a 80% of public debenture (both C&S)
- 2014-15 a Targeting 68% by the recommendation made by 13th financial commission.
- External borrowings by government and private debentures.
- Private debentures shares 75% of total external debentures.
- Multilateral loans.
- Commercial loans (bombings).
- Bilateral loans
- Trade credit.
- Includes loans raised by the government in open market. Through t-bills, government’s securities special securities against issued to the RBI, various bonds like oil bond, fertilizes bond etc.
- Debentures of government also includes outstanding against small scale saving schemes, provident funds, NRI deposits etc… There are called other liabilities.