Country Profile

The Islamic Republic of Iran Country Profile Facts

Second Largest Country in the Middle East

Iran, is a country located in western Asia, is known for its ancient civilizations. Begin from Elamite kingdoms in the 4th millennium BC, its Achaemenid Empire in 6th century BC spreads from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley is one of the largest empires in history. During the rule of Alexander the Great, the realm split into several Hellenistic states. Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire established by the Iranian rebellion in the 3rd century BC in the 3rd century AD remained as a leading world power for the next four years. Nader shan’s powerful rule in the 18th century made continuous conflicts with the Russian Empire, resulted in the loss of some territories. Persian Constitutional Revolution generated the country’s first constitutional monarchy and legislature in the early 20th century. Shahin 1963 launched the White Revolution, which was a reform for stimulating industrial growth, land reforms, and women’s rights. Iranian Revolution emerges due to a lot of violence against the monarchy, the war between Iran & Iraq in the 1980s faced a lot of deaths and economic fall.

Ethnic Groups

Iran, a country comprised of numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The largest ethnic groups were Persians constituting 65% of the population, and the remaining 35% occupied by Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Lurs, Baloch, and Turkic tribal groups. Armenians, Georgians, Talysh, Circassians, and Assyrians are other ethnic groups living at lower rates.


Total land area of 1,648,195 square kilometers is the second largest in the Middle East and shares its border with Armenia for 27.34 miles , Azerbaijan (432 Kilometer), Turkmenistan (1,148 KM), Turkey (534 KM), Iraq (1,599 KM), Afghanistan (921 KM) and Pakistan (959 KM). It has its sea borders as the Caspian Sea in the north, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south. Iran is one of the world’s most mountainous countries, and the mountain ranges are widely seen in the western parts and the desert areas in the eastern region.


Iran’s population in 2018 was 81 million, and it is estimated to reach 83 million in 2019. Its population is the 18th largest in the world. ” Tehran ” the capital of Iran is the most populous city in western Asia. The population density of  is 43.6 people per square kilometers. The life expectancy at birth for total population is 76 years. The net migration rate  in 2020 is -0.591 per 1000 people.


In early days, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism are the predominant religion of Iran. After the Arab Muslims conquer it turned into Islamic Empire where Sunni Muslims are highly dominant. The Safavid Dynasty in the 16th century became the country’s Sunni Muslims into Shia Muslims. As it is an Islamic nation, about 99.6% of people are Muslims. The official state religion of Iran is Twelver Shia Islam and it is followed by 90 to 95 of Muslims while the remaining 4% are Sunni Muslim. The Kurds and Balochs are the Sunni Muslim populations in Iran. The Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Bahais, Mandeans, Yezidis and Yarsanis are the other religion in Iran of 0.4%. The Jewish community in Iran is the largest in the Middle East. Armenians and Assyrians are the minority Christian groups in Iran.


Persian is the official language of the country spoken by 53% of population. Next to Persian, Azerbaijani is the second largest spoken language in the country by 16%. There are numerous Iranian languages spoken among different minorities.

Languages spoken in different parts of Iran

  • Northern Iran – Gilaki, Mazenderani, Talysh 
  • Southern Iran – Luri, Lari
  • Minority languages – Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic


The World Bank states that Iran has Upper-middle income economy. Iran has the world’s most abundant natural gas and oil reserves. Their proven natural gas reserve with 33.6 trillion cubic meters is the second largest in the world, and they are the third-largest producer of natural gas. Iran’s proven 155.6 billion oil barrels ranks 4th, and it is the second-largest oil exporter in the world. The GDP in 2018 was $454.01 billion and it has 3% GDP growth annually. Agriculture, trading, natural gas, and oil exports, the service sector, and industry are central contribute to Iran’s economy. Iran has the leading manufacturing industries. Between 2014-2015, Iran has the annual visitors of five million tourists. Iran’s 22 UNESCO World Heritage site is the 10th largest in the world.


Where is Iran country located?

Iran is a country lies in Western Asia, which is the Westernmost subregion of Asia. Western Asia is fully a part of the greater Middle East. Iraq borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, Turkey, and Iraq.

What is the Iran country code?

The country code of Iran is IR.

What is the state religion in Iran country?

Iran is an Islamic nation, where Muslim is the predominant religion in the country. Its official state religion is Twelver Shia Islam, which is followed by 90% to 95% of people.

What is the currency used by Iran?

The Iranian rial is the currency used by Iran.

How did Iran get its name?

Historically, Iran was known as ‘Persia’ to foreign governments and was once vigorously impacted by Great Britain and Russia. In 1935, in any case, the Iranian government mentioned that all nations with which it had strategic relations call the country by its Persian name, Iran.

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