Switzerland is a European country, and its federal republic consists of 26 cantons. It perfectly sits on the confluence of Western, Central, and Southern Europe. The founding document of Switzerland is considered as the Federal Charter of 1291. Peace of Westphalia officially designated independence of Swiss from the Holy Roman Empire in 1648. From the reformation in the 16th century, it does not conduct any international war, and it is not a member of the United Nations until 2002. It frequently involved in spreading peace around the world. The Red Cross, well known humanitarian organization, first emerged in Switzerland. Federalism, direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism are the national identities of Swiss.
Historically, the territory of Switzerland was a Roman Empire for six centuries from the 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. The Old Swiss Confederacy in the late medieval period leads to military success against Austria and Burgundy. The French revolutionary government conquered Switzerland and formed a new unified constitution from 1798 to 1814. Switzerland was home to Vladimir Illych Ulyanov during First World War. But it was significantly escaped without any damage during the Second World War.
As being a multilingual country, Switzerland also called Schweiz (German), Suisse (French), Svizzera (Italian), and Svizra (Romansh). The Germans, French, Italian, and Romansh are the ethnic groups of Switzerland.
With a total land area of 41,285 square kilometers, Switzerlandshares its border with Italy, France, Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein. The three significant landscapes of Switzerland are the Swiss Plateau, Alps, and the Jura mountains. The Swiss Alps include 60% of the country’s land area with mountain ranges. The Swiss Plateau lies between the Alps and Jura Mountains, and it is having the country’s majority of the population. Switzerland is holding 6% of Europe’s freshwater in its area. Bern, the capital of Switzerland, is the fifth most populous city.
In 2019 the population was 85.7 Lakhs , and its majority of the community lies on the plateau. According to World Bank Data in 2018, It has an annual population growth of 0.7%; population density is 215.5 people per square kilometers. The life expectancy at birth of the total population was 84 years. The net migration rate in Switzerland in 2020 is 5.500 per 1000 people.
Switzerland does not have any state religion, but its cantons recognize only official churches. Hence, Christianity is the main religion of the country. Roman Catholics, Protestant, and Orthodox are the main categories of Christianity. Immigration in 1980 led to the Islam population in Switzerland. In 2015, Switzerland had 36.5% of Roman Catholics, 24.5% Protestant, 5.9% other Christians, 5.2% Muslims, 3% other religion and non-religious of 24.9%.
The four main official languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian, and Romansh. In 2017, German was the primary language speaks by 5.2 million residents, which is nearly 63%, French was spoken by 22.9%, Italian was spoken by 8.2%, and 0.5% speak Romansh. English, Portuguese, Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, and Spanish are non-official languages spoken by their native communities.
A well-developed country, is holding a stable, wealthy, and high tech economy. It has the twentieth-largest economy with $705.14 billion of GDP (nominal) in 2018. In economic competitiveness and human development, it was in the leading place. In terms of quality of life, Switzerland’s three cities Zürich, Geneva, and Basel, rank at the top ten positions. Switzerland ranked first in the world in 2019 for attracting skilled workers.
Manufacturing is the primary economic sector of the country, and they are the largest producers of chemicals, health and pharmaceutical goods, electronics, scientific measuring instruments, and musical instruments. Switzerland gets a place in the least corrupted countries in the world. It has meager tax rates, and it contains a more massive amount of multinational companies. Due to its meager tax rates, it is the best place to start a business quickly. It is one of the members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and it also has free trade agreements worldwide. With the Human Development Index (HDI) value of 0.946, ranks second, and it shows the country has a very high human development category.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $678,938 million in 2019, with 1.6% annual GDP growth. The unemployment rate of 4.7%. According to World Bank Report in 2018, Switzerland’s tax revenue (10.1% of GDP), military expenditure (0.7% of GDP), Exports of goods & services (66% of GDP), Imports of goods & services (54% of GDP), Industry, value added (25% of GDP). By the World Bank Atlas method, GNI of Switzerland in 2018 is $718.91 billion, and GNI per capita is $84,410.
Healthcare in Switzerland regulated by the Swiss Federal Law on Health Insurance. Every Swiss resident is required to buy health insurance from private insurance companies compulsory. Even though the insurance cost is high, peoples are highly satisfied with the treatment provided. For the basic plan, the insured person pays 8% of their income for insurance premiums. Hence Healthcare in Switzerland is universal, and it avoids variable standards in healthcare. Health coverage includes the cost of medication and hospitalization of the insured Patients. In 2019, Switzerland’s Health expenditure on its GDP was 12.2%. Health expenditure continues to increase due to new healthcare technologies and the aging population.
According to the World Bank Report in 2018, Fertility rate, total (1.5 births per woman), and Mortality rate, under-5 (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019, the life expectancy at birth of males was 80.5 years, and females are 84.8 years. The sex ratio is 98.4 males per 100 females.
Switzerland’s tourism is extensively widespread due to its varying landscapes and typical climates. Swiss tour offers various experiences for visitors through culture, sports, and nature tourism. On Switzerland’s 12 UNESCO World Heritage sites, nine are cultural, and 3 are natural sites. Matterhorn, Rhine Falls, Jungfraujoch, and Grindelwald are the most popular tourist sites. Some of the oldest cities in Swizz having cultural centers and museums are Zurich, Basel, Bern, Lucerne, Lausanne. Notably, the WHO (World Health Organization) Located in Geneva. The Matterhorn, the Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau mountain ranges provide excellent trekking experience. Many viewing platforms on these mountains offer breathtaking views. The Jungfrau railway station at an elevation of 3,454 meters is the highest in Europe.In 2018, the number of international tourist arrivals in Switzerland was 10.3 million. Revenue generated through foreign tourists in 2018 was CHF 16.6 billion.
Switzerland Country Code : CH
Switzerland Dailing Code: +41