Peru Country Profile Facts

Population | Religion | Ethnic groups | Language | Economy |

Peru, a megadiverse country, was located in South America. Peru’s civilization is one of the oldest in the Americas, and its heritage dates back to the 4th millennia BCE. In 16th century, the country was captured by the Spanish Empire and they introduced a viceroyalty by covering certain territories of South America with capital in Lima. Peru recognized its independence in 1821, following some foreign military campaigns and the battle of Ayacucho, it becomes a free nation in 1824.

Map of Peru

Before the Pacific War with Chile, it experienced relative economy and political stability but in 20th century it has faced great difficulties. In 1990, Alberto Fujimori was elected as a President; he  made drastic change in the economy of the country and successfully finished the Shining Path insurgency. Alberto resigned his Presidency in 2000 then he was imprisoned due to the cause of human rights violations and suppressing political opposition. Even after the end of President’s rule, Fujimori’s followers are causing great political turmoil. Today, Peru is a democratic republic nation with 25 regions. For several millennia, Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups of the country are Mesito, Quechua, White, Black, and Aymara. Among them, Mestizos are the largest ethnic groups, and they are a combination of European and indigenous American descent. Peru, made of a multiethnic society, has a great cultural heritage.


The total land area of 1.28 square kilometers and third-largest in South America. It has its borders as Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountain, which runs parallel to the Pacific Ocean, geographically separates the country into three regions. The Costa, a narrow plain, the Sierra mountains of the Andes, and the Selva, which was hugely covered by the Amazon rainforest, are three central regions of Peru. Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America, runs between Peru and Bolivia.


Peru’s population of 31.9 million is the fourth largest in South America. With an annual population growth of 1.7%, Peru has an urban population of 79.3% and a rural population of 20.7%. The population density  in 2018 was 24.4 people per square kilometers. The life expectancy at birth of the total population was 77 years. The life expectancy of a male is 71.9 years and female is 76.1 years. The net migration rate of Peru in 2020 is 1.117 per 1000 population.Peru has an urban population growth of 2% annually. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines 20.5% of the people.


Peru has predominant faith in Roman Catholicism for many centuries. As of 2017 census, 76% of Peruvians above 12 years are Catholics, 14.1% are Evangelical, 4.8% are others (Protestants, Jewish, Saints and Jehovah’s Witness) and 5.1% are non-religious.


As Peru is a multiethnic country, it is home to several indigenous languages. Spanish is the official language of Peru. Other than Spanish, Peru assigned a co-official status for Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages spoken by ethnic groups. A 2017 census report says that Spanish was spoken by 82.6% of Peruvians, Quechua by 13.9%, Aymara by 1.7%, while the other languages are spoken by 1.8%.


Peru, a developing country, has an upper-middle-income economy. Peru has the GDP (nominal) of 222.04 USD billion in 2018. The main sectors of Peru are agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and fishing. Most recently, it has more significant growth in telecommunication and biotechnology. Peru’s economic activity is combined with exports; it provides currency for imports and external debt. Recent financial growth hikes by trade, increased investment, and consumption. It is the largest exporter of gold, copper, zinc, textiles, and fish meat.


In Peru’s GDP, the service sector contributes 53%, manufacturing 22.3%, extractive industries 15%, and taxes 9.7%. Trade was unexpectedly increased after a free trade agreement with the United States. Peru’s very high Human Development Index value of 0.763 shows it has a high range of human development. It has an annual GDP growth rate of 4%.According to the World Bank report in 2018, Exports and imports of goods & services contribute 49% of GDP. Its military expenditure on GDP is 1.2%. By the World Bank Atlas method, Peru’s Gross National Income (GNI) in 2018 is $207.10 billion, and GNI per capita is $6470. Peru’s total external debt stock, DOD, was $66,697 million.

Health Care System

The Ministry of Health administers the Healthcare system of Peru, EsSalud- Social Health Insurance of Peru (Founded in 1936 at Lima), the Armed Forces, National Police, and the Private sector. The Ministry of Health provides health service for 60% of the population, Essalud provides for 30%, and the other three entities provided the remaining 10%. Peru’s health sector saw a significant fall due to high inflation and terrorism between the 1980s and 1990s. But today, the country is providing health service by establishing more number of primary care clinics, even in the rural areas, resulting in decreased infant mortality and child malnutrition. As Peru is allocating lower amount for health care in its GDP, inequalities still remain between poor and non-poor citizens. According to the World Bank data, Peru’s Fertility rate was 2.3 births per woman, Mortality rate under age 5 was 14 per 1000 live births and births attended by skilled health staff 92%.


Peru’s tourist industry is a partner fueling the economy. The tourism industry of Peru generated revenue of $4.895 billion in 2018, with a 7% increase compared to the last year. Peru ranks fourth on receiving a large number of international sightseers. Peru holds its 50% visitors from the United States and Chile. Iperú is the official tourism office of Peru headquarters in Lima. Tourism in Peru is categorized into adventure tourism, beach tourism, desert tourism, cultural tourism, and gastronomic tourism.


Peru is the only American country having 98 archeological sites in its area. These archeological sites are reflecting the cultures of Inca, Moche, Lima, Nasca, Chachapoyas, Norte chico, and Chavin. Lima, Cusco, La Libertad, Ayacucho, Ancash, Puno and are Amazonas are the most popular regions having a large number of archeological sites. Other than this, Peru has 12 UNESCO world heritage sites; of them, 8 are cultural sites, two are natural places, and the remaining two cultural and natural sites. Machu Picchu is the most famous archeological site functioned as an Inca citadel during the 15th century. The ruins of Machu Picchu in Inca style with dry stone walls are highly attracting the visitors. It was announced as Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in1981 and recognized as UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.

Peru Country Code : PE

Peru Dailing Code: +51