National Museum of Saudi Arabia was established in 1999 at the center of Riyadh in King Abdul-Aziz Historical Center. The architect of this museum is Raymond Moriyama. Saudi Arabia has several historical and cultural museum that shows the importance of art life and handicrafts. This National Museum is one of the most recognized museums located in riyadh. It occupies nearly 17, 000 sqkm from the east of the historical center. The national museum of Saudi Arabia provides several modern education and various segments of local society, and it attracts visitors of all age groups from kids, families, and researchers. This museum comprises of a variety of antiques of the Arabian cape and ancient tradition of a different period. It consists of eight main halls; each affords independent idea presentation at a particular period in one room.
Man and the Universe :
The first hall that makes a way to other galleries, it covers nearly 1500 square meter.
It makes the impact on humans and changes the earth’s surfaces.
It displays different types and forms of petroleum.
It also represents the Obaid Civilization, like showcasing the ceramic handicrafts.
They also show the prehistory of man how coped with the environment in the form of artifacts, models, and rock drawing.
Arab Kingdoms :
The second hall covers 1500 square meters.
This hall covers the period of the 4th millennium BC to 4th century AD.
The tourist will initially view the model of the Tayma Wall made up of stones.
They convey the history of the Arab Kingdom.
Opposite to this, they can see the set of stone slabs, which is four meters in height, that is established at the Khobba site in Tabuk district.
The highlight of this hall is they show the early civilization of the Arab Kingdom.
In this hall, they exhibit ancient tools like glassware, gold, roller, comb, and many more.
The most popular cities at that time depended on agriculture are Tayma, Dawmat Jandal, Dedan, and Najran.
The hall has one of the uplifted highlights of is the ancient multicultural town of Thaj, which emerges in 4th century BC.
Also, this hall has a lion’s head, and its foot is made up of bronze.
Pre-Islamic Era :
This hall includes important cities and industries and market in that period.
A – Jerash: This is placed in the Asir region; they got economic importance mainly due to spot next to significant trade routes.
B – Khayber: It is situated in the Hejaz region, and fully enclosed with volcanic and rock was a considerable caravan halting-place. Here the main trade supplies consist of swards, shield and etc.
C – Najran: This is a central point of the riles route; they have well-developed branches in two directions. One proceeding to north during the Hejaz to Egypt and the Levant and those leading northwest, to the Persian Gulf.
D – Yathrib: Oasis city is initially recognized as Yathrib. Known from the beginning of Islam as Madinah.
E – Hajar Al-Yamamah: It is built in Wadi Hanifa before the Kingdom of Kindah initially governed Islam. This place was fully occupied by tribes, which is become the home for flourishing city and market place for Arabs.
F- Dawmat al – Jandal: This is placed at the northwest side of the Arabian Peninsula.
This hall mainly represents the entry of Arab writing, and presents samples of the ancient alphabets in history. They mostly exhibit Arab poetry, culture, and many more.
Prophet’s Mission :
The fourth hall comprises an area of 350 square meters.
The main highlight of this floor is the life of Prophet Mohammad.
It shows the life history of Prop Mohammad, birth, family, marriage until the migration of Madinah.
Also, it displays the script of sacred Quran, painting and road map representing the relocation of Madinah
Islam and the Arabian Peninsula :
The 5th hall covers nearly 1200 square meters.
The 1st section derives the era of Islam.
The 2nd section calculates the period of the Umayyad Caliphate.
The 3rd section (1) room consist of pottery, medicine, and astronomy, (2) room including the film establishing Arab contributions to science, (3) room consist of Calligraphy of Islamic stones of different sizes.
The 4th section (1) room has popular sites of Saudi Arabia, such as Ar-Rabadha and Al Mabiyat, (2) They show the short film of the Islamic era on Ar-Rabah.
The 5th section mainly represents an Abbasid period; they exhibit feature coins, ceramic, goblet, woodwork, and many more.
The 6th section describes the Ottoman period, and they showcased a massive Ottoman fort at Muwaylih.
First Saudi State and Second Saudi State :
This sixth hall of the museum is separated into two sections.
Section I: This section highlights the entry of Imam Muhammad bin Saud who ruled amid 1139 AH and 1179 AH; it also shows the biography and power of the king.
Part II: It represents Imam Turki bin Abdullah, who found and chose Riyadh as his capital, this section also recollects the memory of the return of Imam Faisal and the reinstallation of government in 1259 AH (1843 AD) till his death 1309 AH.
Unification of the Kingdom Hall :
It is covering the total area of 1200 square meters; here, they mainly uplift the importance of the history of modern Saudi from the start of Riyadh captured by King Abdul-Aziz to the union of Kingdom.
Hall of Hajj and Two Holy Mosques :
Eight and last hall of the museum, it covers 800 square meters. It exhibits Hajj customs, the growth of the cities of Makkah and Madinah. This section has five divisions.
The 1st section: Shows the place of Makkah in the Arabian Peninsula. Highlights the sample of Kaaba screen that hanging on the wall and is handwork with silk and silver
The 2nd section shows old routes, exposing road signs, left out objects by pilgrims, and description of maps, the most significant is the Levant, Egyptian and Yemeni pilgrim routes.
The 3rd section covers the history of the Kaaba and the Grand Mosque.
The 4th section includes the history of Prophet, also explains the teaching, writing, and reading instruments.
The 5th section exhibits Hajj rituals through centuries
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