Monkeypox virus is a disease caused by orthopoxvirus, which is similar to smallpox but less severe. Smallpox is identified in 1980, whereas Monkeypox occurs in countries of Central and West Africa. Monkeypox is a zoonosis, contagious from animal to human. Mainly they are found in tropical rainforest regions where animals can carry the virus. The Monkeypox is found in animals like squirrels (members of the family Sciuridae), Gambian poached rats (African giant pouched rat), dormice (rodent of the family Gliridae), different kinds of monkeys, and others.
Human-to-Human transmission is a chain of transmission being six ages. It is restricted as the human influenced by this infection might be the six connections from the first exhausted individual. It can be transmitted to humans by direct contacts such as bodily fluids and scratches on the skin, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets, and infected objects.
Viral DNA can detect Monkeypox by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the preferred lab test. To get the best result, the specimen from skin, fluid, or biopsy where possible. Antigen and antibody methods are not that much effective as they do not differentiate between orthopoxviruses.
- The symptoms of Monkeypox occur with fever, along with rashes and bloated lymph nodes.
- This is different from other pandemic diseases like chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and allergies.
- The period of incubation for Monkeypox will take nearly 5 to 21 days.
- The fever state will stay for 1-3 days with other symptoms like severe headache, swelling of the lymph nodes, backache muscle pain, and lack of energy.
- After the fever stage, followed by a skin outbreak stage, and it will stay for 2-4 weeks.
- Lesions evolve from flat base to papules and filled with a clear fluid to pustules filled with pus that is followed by scabs.
- The death rate differs from 0 and 11%; it is recorded as higher among young children.
Treatment and Prevention
- Many compounds are effective against Monkeypox virus infection are being developed and tested.
- The prevention and control of Monkeypox will require necessary awareness among communities and need to educate them to stop the spreading.
- Most human getting this Monkeypox infection is from animal-to-human.
- Be more careful while taking care of sick or dead animals, and avoid food containing animal meat.
- Very close contact with infected people should be avoided.
- Gloves and other protective equipment should be given to healthcare workers.
- Vaccination used for smallpox was shown 85% effective result in preventing Monkeypox.
- In childhood, all should be vaccinated with a smallpox vaccine to remain protected against Monkeypox too.